UEFA says they topped a poll of journalists from its 54 member countries. Those voters selected the original 10-candidate list.
The winner is revealed on Aug. 28 at the Champions League draw in Monaco.
Neuer, of Germany and Bayern, was named outstanding goalkeeper at the World Cup.
Ronaldo's 17 Champions League goals for Real Madrid was a competition record. He scored twice in Madrid's UEFA Super Cup win against Sevilla on Tuesday.
Lionel Messi, Andres Iniesta and Franck Ribery previously won the award.